Copywriting Formulas with Examples

Copywriting Formulas With Examples | Meet The Integrated Goals as Beginner

Back when I was just starting out in the copywriting world, no one really clued me in on these copywriting tricks. But you, my friend, you’ve got it easy now because you’re about to get the scoop.

Think about it – back in my day, I was fumbling around trying to figure out how to put words together in a way that would make people pay attention. The idea of copywriting formulas, those step-by-step methods to make your writing super convincing, seemed like some kind of hidden treasure. 

But things are different for you. As you’ve stepped into the world of copywriting, you’ve got these formulas and examples right in front of you. So, let’s not waste this golden chance. Get ready to uncover the secrets that can make your writing stand out from the crowd.


18 Copywriting Formulas With Examples | Nothing Left Till Now

These copywriting formulas, provide practical examples and explore their effects on readers. Here is the list of Copywriting formulas:

  1. FAB Formula (Features-Advantages-Benefits)
  2. 4Ps Formula (Promise-Proof-Picture-Push)
  3. PAPA Formula (Problem-Agitate-Promise-Action)
  4. Before-After-Bridge Formula
  5. Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS2)
  6. STAR Formula (Situation-Task-Action-Result)
  7. Problem-Solution-Benefit (PSB)
  8. AAPPA Formula (Attention-Acknowledge-Problem-Promise-Action)
  9. 5 C’s Formula
  10. Four U’s Formula
  11. APP Formula (Agree-Promise-Prove)
  12. The 1-2-3-4 Formula
  13. PASO Formula (Problem-Agitate-Solution-Outcome)
  14. PPPP Formula (Problem-Promise-Proof-Proposal)
  15. POA Formula (Problem-Opportunity-Action)
  16. RACE Formula (Relate-Aspire-Convert-Empower)
  17. PCS Formula (Problem-Comparison-Solution)
  18. Before-During-After Formula
  19. AIDA Formula
  20. PAS Formula

I’m revealing some top secrets of COPYWRITING Skills. Some old or expert Copywriters may be in trouble after this blog go viral. But, I’m sorry for not stopping myself for beginners. 


Because, once upon a time, I was a beginner too. 

So, cheer up, and here are all copywriting formulas with examples. And, I kept myself squeezed by not writing too many sentences. It is because of clarity.

1. FAB Formula (Features-Advantages-Benefits)


  • Features: These are the unique aspects of your product or service.
  • Advantages: These explain how those features directly benefit the customer.
  • Benefits: These highlight the positive impact on the customer’s life or business.

FAB Formula Example

  • Features: Noise-cancelling technology, 20-hour battery life 
  • Advantages: Block out distractions, use it for extended travel 
  • Benefits: Experience focused work sessions without interruptions and enjoy long flights with entertainment at your fingertips.

Effect on Readers:

Readers are provided with a clear understanding of what the product offers and how it’s superior to others. By connecting the features to tangible advantages and benefits, readers can envision how the product fits into their lives, making them more likely to consider a purchase.

2. 4Ps Formula (Promise-Proof-Picture-Push)

  • Promise: A bold and enticing statement that grabs attention. 
  • Proof: Evidence that supports the promise, such as testimonials, data, or examples. 
  • Picture: Creating a mental image of the reader enjoying the promised benefits.
  • Push: Urging the reader to take immediate action.

4Ps Formula Example

  • Promise: “Double Your Website Traffic in 60 Days!” 
  • Proof: Testimonials from clients showcasing their traffic growth. 
  • Picture: Visualize your analytics graph showing a significant spike in visitors.
  • Push: Don’t miss out on the opportunity to boost your online presence – start implementing these strategies now!

Effect on Readers:

Readers are captivated by the promise, reassured by real-life proof, and enticed by the visualization of success. The push to take action taps into their desire for positive outcomes, prompting them to act quickly.

3. PAPA Formula (Problem-Agitate-Promise-Action)

  • Problem: Address a relatable pain point or challenge. 
  • Agitate: Dive deeper into the emotional and practical impact of the problem.
  • Promise: Introduce a solution that will alleviate the problem. Action: Encourage the reader to take a specific action to access the solution.

PAPA Formula Example:

  • Problem: “Feeling Overwhelmed by Clutter at Home?” 
  • Agitate: Imagine not finding your essentials, spending hours cleaning, and feeling stressed. 
  • Promise: Discover our organization system that will bring order and tranquility to your home. 
  • Action: Take the first step towards a clutter-free life by implementing our methods today.

Effect on Readers:
Readers see that the content understands their struggles, which builds a sense of empathy and trust. The agitate phase intensifies the reader’s recognition of their problem, making them more receptive to the solution. The promise and action steps give them hope and a clear path forward.

4. Before-After-Bridge Formula

  • Before: Describe the reader’s current situation or problem. 
  • After: Paint a vivid picture of the improved state after using your solution. 
  • Bridge: Explain how your solution facilitates the transition from “before” to “after.”

Before-After-Bridge Formula Example

  • Before: “Your Hair Lacking Shine and Vitality?” 
  • After: Imagine running your fingers through silky, glossy locks that turn heads.
  • Bridge: Our revitalizing haircare products infuse nourishment, transforming dull hair into a radiant crown.

Effect on Readers:
Readers can relate to the “before” scenario, creating an emotional connection. The vivid “after” description sparks desire and paints a positive outcome. The bridge provides assurance that your solution is the bridge that can turn their aspirations into reality.

5. Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS2)

  • Problem: Identify a problem or pain point your audience is facing. 
  • Agitate: Dig deeper into the emotional and practical consequences of the problem. 
  • Solution: Introduce your solution as the ultimate remedy.

Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS2) Example

  • Problem: “Tired of Feeling Self-Conscious About Your Smile?” 
  • Agitate: Imagine hiding your smile in photos, missing out on social occasions, and lacking confidence. 
  • Solution: Discover our cutting-edge dental treatments that will give you the radiant smile you deserve.

6. STAR Formula (Situation-Task-Action-Result)

  • Situation: Describe the initial scenario or problem. 
  • Task: Explain what the reader aimed to achieve or overcome. 
  • Action: Detail the steps taken using your solution. 
  • Result: Share the positive outcome and benefits achieved.

STAR Formula Example

  • Situation: “Struggling to Keep Up with Fitness Goals?” 
  • Task: You set out to improve your health and fitness but lacked guidance. Action: You implemented our personalized workout plan and nutritional guidance. 
  • Result: Now, you’re more energetic, confident, and have achieved the body you’ve always desired.

7. Problem-Solution-Benefit (PSB)

  • Problem: Address a specific challenge your audience is encountering.
  • Solution: Present your solution to tackle the problem. 
  • Benefit: Explain how implementing the solution leads to positive outcomes.

Problem-Solution-Benefit (PSB) Example

  • Problem: “Constantly Battling Writer’s Block?” 
  • Solution: Our creative writing workshops provide the tools and techniques to overcome blocks. 
  • Benefit: Unlock your inner wordsmith, enhance your productivity, and create compelling content effortlessly.

8. AAPPA Formula (Attention-Acknowledge-Problem-Promise-Action)

  • Attention: Grab the reader’s attention with a compelling hook. Acknowledge: Recognize the reader’s situation or concerns. 
  • Problem: Address the pain point they’re experiencing. 
  • Promise: Introduce a solution and its benefits. Action: Encourage the reader to take the next step.

AAPPA Formula Example

  • Attention: “Attention, Aspiring 
  • Writers: Master the Art of Storytelling!” 
  • Acknowledge: We understand the challenges every writer faces on their creative journey. 
  • Problem: Struggling to craft engaging narratives that captivate readers? 
  • Promise: Our storytelling workshop will equip you with the skills to weave captivating tales.
  • Action: Enroll today and embark on a transformative writing adventure.

9.  The 5 C’s Formula

  • Clear: State your message in a straightforward manner. 
  • Concise: Keep your message succinct and to the point. 
  • Compelling: Make your message engaging and captivating. 
  • Credible: Back your message with reliable sources or testimonials. 
  • Call-to-Action: Include a clear and compelling call-to-action.

5 C’s Formula Example

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10. Four U’s Formula

  • Useful: Make your content valuable and relevant to the reader. 
  • Urgent: Create a sense of urgency that compels immediate action. 
  • Unique: Highlight what sets your offering apart from the competition.
  • Ultra-specific: Provide concrete details and specifics.

Four U’s Formula Example

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11.  APP Formula (Agree-Promise-Prove)

  • Agree: Begin by stating something the reader agrees with. 
  • Promise: Make a promise that addresses their needs or desires. 
  • Prove: Offer evidence or examples that back up your promise.

APP Formula Example

You understand the importance of a healthy lifestyle. Our nutritious meal plans deliver on their promise to fuel your body with vitality. Just hear what our satisfied customers have to say.

12.   The 1-2-3-4 Formula

  • 1: Present one problem your audience faces. 
  • 2: Amplify the problem by sharing two more related challenges. 
  • 3: Propose three solutions to the combined problems. 
  • 4: Call the reader to action by listing four steps they can take.

The 1-2-3-4 Formula Example

  • Problem: Stressed by work? Overwhelmed by chores? Missing quality time?
  • Solution: Discover time-management techniques, delegate tasks, prioritize self-care, and schedule family moments. Take control of your life now.

13.  PASO Formula (Problem-Agitate-Solution-Outcome)

  • Problem: Identify a problem your audience relates to. 
  • Agitate: Amplify the emotional and practical pain of the problem. 
  • Solution: Present your solution as the ultimate answer. 
  • Outcome: Describe the positive results after implementing the solution.

PASO Formula Example

  • Problem: Struggling with back pain every morning?
  • Agitate: Imagine waking up stiff and sore, dreading the day ahead.
  • Solution: Our ergonomic mattress provides the support your body craves.
  • Outcome: Enjoy rejuvenating sleep and wake up ready to conquer each day.

14.  PPPP Formula (Problem-Promise-Proof-Proposal)

  • Problem: Identify a pressing issue your audience faces. 
  • Promise: Offer a solution that addresses the problem. 
  • Proof: Provide evidence or testimonials that support your promise. 
  • Proposal: Present a clear call to action for the reader.

PPPP Formula Example

  • Problem: Frustrated by endless dieting with no results?
  • Promise: Our science-backed nutrition program guarantees sustainable weight loss.
  • Proof: Hear from clients who shed pounds and regained their confidence.
  • Proposal: Start your journey to a healthier you today!

15. POA Formula (Problem-Opportunity-Action)

  • Problem: Highlight a common challenge your audience experiences.
  • Opportunity: Showcase the potential for positive change. 
  • Action: Guide the reader toward seizing the opportunity.

POA Formula Example

  • Problem: Feeling stuck in your career?
  • Opportunity: Embrace our career development program and unlock new paths.
  • Action: Take the leap and ignite your professional growth today!

16.  RACE Formula (Relate-Aspire-Convert-Empower)

  • Relate: Connect with the reader by acknowledging a shared experience. 
  • Aspire: Evoke their desires and aspirations. 
  • Convert: Present your solution as the means to achieve their aspirations.
  • Empower: Encourage the reader to take action and become empowered.

RACE Formula Example

  • Relate: We’ve all struggled with time management.
  • Aspire: Imagine a life where you’re in control of your schedule.
  • Convert: Our time-management course equips you with the tools for success.
  • Empower: Seize control of your time and achieve your dreams!

17.  PCS Formula (Problem-Comparison-Solution)

  • Problem: Address a challenge your audience faces. 
  • Comparison: Contrast their current situation with an ideal scenario. 
  • Solution: Present your offering as the bridge between the problem and the ideal.

PCS Formula Example

  • Problem: Tired of tangled cables ruining your workspace?
  • Comparison: Picture a clutter-free desk with everything in its place.
  • Solution: Our cable management system creates the organized space you’ve been longing for.

18. Before-During-After Formula

  • Before: Describe the reader’s situation before using your solution. 
  • During: Explain the process of using your solution. 
  • After: Paint a picture of the improved state after using your solution.

Before-During-After Formula Example

  • Before:  Dealing with constant energy dips and exhaustion?
  • During: Implement our energy-boosting strategies for increased vitality.
  • After: Enjoy sustained energy levels and a revitalized life.

I can add up around 18 more, but the blog will catch the fire. Yes, it will go too long. So, let’s make a deal. I will add all copywriting formulas separately as a blog. 

 So let’s come back to what we have till now. 

You’ve gone through all the copywriting formulas with examples. These formulas provide a diverse range of structures to create a persuasive copy.

By tailoring your content to match your message and the preferences of your audience, you can effectively engage readers and motivate them to take desired actions.

I’m not yet finished! 

Let’s compare and contrast some of the copywriting formulas and suggest which formula might be suitable for specific niches, products, or services. Additionally, I’ll provide guidance on how to understand and apply a certain copywriting formula effectively.

Comparison of Different Copywriting Formulas with Examples

It’s time to compare the competence of the top three formulas. Let’s see how effectively SEO Copywriters use these. Another thing, you need to focus on suitability for different niches.

AIDA Formula vs. Problem-Agitate-Solution (PAS)

AIDA Formula

  • Attention – Capture attention with a compelling headline. 
  • Interest – Engage the reader’s interest by addressing their needs. 
  • Desire – Stoke desire by highlighting the benefits of your solution. 
  • Action – Prompt the reader to take a specific action.

PAS Formula 

  • Problem – Identify a problem your audience faces.
  • Agitate – Amplify the pain of the problem, making it emotionally impactful.
  • Solution – Introduce your solution as the remedy to the problem.


Both AIDA and PAS focus on identifying a problem and presenting a solution. However, PAS goes a step further by agitating the problem to evoke stronger emotions. AIDA covers the full customer journey, from grabbing attention to prompting action.


  • AIDA

Suitable for products or services with a broader target audience. Great for introducing a solution to a problem that might not be deeply emotional.

  • PAS

Ideal for products or services addressing significant pain points. Effective for connecting emotionally with readers and presenting a solution that resonates deeply.

FAB Formula vs. 4Ps Formula

FAB Formula

  • Features – Highlight the unique features of your product. 
  • Advantages – Explain how these features benefit the customer. 
  • Benefits – Describe the positive outcomes or experiences for the customer.

4Ps Formula

  • Promise – Make a compelling promise to the reader. 
  • Proof – Offer evidence or testimonials that support your promise. 
  • Picture – Paint a mental image of the reader enjoying the promised benefits.
  • Push – Encourage the reader to take immediate action.


FAB emphasizes the progression from features to benefits, while 4Ps focus on creating a visual and emotional connection through proof and imagery.


  • FAB

Well-suited for products or services with specific features that lead to clear benefits. Effective for logical, analytical audiences.

  • 4Ps

Great for creating emotional resonance. Suitable for products or services where visuals play a key role in conveying benefits.

PAPA Formula vs. STAR Formula

PAPA Formula

  • Problem – State a problem the reader can relate to. 
  • Agitate – Dig deeper into the pain of the problem. 
  • Promise – Introduce your solution and the benefits it offers. 
  • Action – Encourage the reader to take action.

STAR Formula

  • Situation – Describe the initial scenario or problem. 
  • Task – Explain the goal the reader aims to achieve. 
  • Action – Detail the steps taken using your solution. 
  • Result – Share the positive outcome and benefits achieved.


Both formulas address problems and solutions, but STAR adds an extra layer by explaining the reader’s task and the specific actions that are taken.


  • PAPA

Effective for building empathy with readers and guiding them toward a solution. Well-suited for emotionally driven products or services.

  • STAR:

Suitable for instructional or educational content, helping readers understand how your solution can be applied step by step.

It’s more important how to apply copywriting formulas as an SEO Copywriter. 

Give me 5 more minutes, and I will peel it well.

How to Apply Copywriting Formulas Practically | Wining Points for You

1. Understanding and Applying Copywriting Formulas

For you, I came up with solid points. You can further go deep by understanding it well.

  • Know Your Audience

Understand your target audience’s pain points, desires, and preferences. Tailor your formula to resonate with their emotions.

  • Identify Key Points

Determine the most important elements you want to convey, such as the problem, solution, benefits, and call to action.

  • Choose the Right Formula 

Select a formula that aligns with your message and audience. Consider the emotional impact you want to create.

  • Create a Flow

Organize your content logically, ensuring a smooth transition between the different sections of the formula.

  • Test and Refine

Experiment with different formulas and analyze their effectiveness. Adjust based on feedback and results.

  • Practice

Practice is key to mastering copywriting formulas. With time and experience, you’ll develop a sense of which formula suits different scenarios.

  • Be Authentic

While formulas provide structure, infuse your unique voice and brand personality to connect genuinely with your audience.

Now, understanding your product or service, your target audience, and the emotions you want to evoke will guide you in choosing the most suitable copywriting formula.

Let’s dive even deeper into understanding and applying copywriting formulas effectively:

2. Match the Formula to Your Niche, Product, or Service

Different niches and industries have distinct characteristics, audiences, and emotional triggers. Consider the nature of your product or service and its unique selling points. Some formulas naturally align with specific niches:

  • PAS or AIDA

Suitable for a wide range of products or services, especially those addressing emotional pain points, solutions, and benefits.

  • FAB

Works well for technical or feature-rich products where explaining benefits is crucial.

  • 4Ps

Effective for visual and creative industries such as fashion, beauty, and food, where imagery plays a significant role.

  • Problem-Solution-Benefit (PSB) 

Excellent for products or services that offer a straightforward solution to a common problem.

3. Adapt the Formula to the Customer’s Journey

Consider where your potential customers are in their purchasing journey:

  • Awareness Stage

AIDA or PAS formulas work best to capture attention and introduce the problem and solution.

  • Consideration Stage

Use more detailed formulas like FAB or 4Ps to provide in-depth information about benefits.

  • Decision Stage

Emphasize credibility and trust in formulas like PAPA or STAR.

  • Tailor Your Tone and Language

The tone and language of your copy should resonate with your target audience. Formal or technical industries might require a more straightforward approach (FAB), while creative industries can embrace vivid language and storytelling (AIDA).

  • Testing and Iteration

No formula is one-size-fits-all. Run A/B tests using different formulas to gauge which resonates better with your audience. Monitor metrics like click-through rates, conversions, and engagement to assess effectiveness.

  • Prioritize Clarity and Simplicity

Regardless of the formula you choose, clarity is paramount. Keep sentences concise, avoid jargon, and ensure the message is easily understandable.

  • Understand Your Unique Selling Proposition (USP)

Your USP sets you apart from competitors. Make sure the chosen formula highlights your USP effectively.

  • Visual Elements and Formatting

Visual elements like images, graphics, and bullet points can enhance the impact of your copy. Format your content for easy readability, using subheadings and short paragraphs.

  • Consider Customer Reviews and Testimonials

Incorporate real customer reviews and testimonials that align with the formula you’re using. They add authenticity and social proof.

  • Create a Sense of Urgency or Scarcity

Urgency or scarcity elements, such as limited-time offers or limited stock, can complement many copywriting formulas, encouraging readers to take action.

  • Emphasize the Transformation

Many successful formulas focus on transformation – taking the reader from a current undesirable state to an improved future state. This transformation should be at the core of your message.

  • Evolve with Trends

Copywriting trends and audience preferences evolve. Stay updated and adapt your formulas to align with current best practices.

  • Seek Feedback

If possible, gather feedback from colleagues, mentors, or your target audience. Fresh perspectives can provide valuable insights.

  • Emotional Resonance

Understand the emotional triggers that resonate with your audience. Emotional connection drives action.

While copywriting formulas with examples provide a structured approach, creativity and authenticity are essential. Formulas guide you, but your unique voice and insights will make your content stand out. 

Continuously learn, adapt, and refine your approach based on results and feedback. You can take advantage by reading Types of Copywriting with Examples.

Let’s craft a more refined explanation of how SEO copywriters can effectively merge persuasive writing with search engine optimization using the PAS and AIDA formulas:

PAS Formula for SEO Copywriting Mastery | The Core & Unavoidable Formula

You can’t miss PAS formula to use. Crafting all copywriting formulas with examples, I used the same with you. 

Did you notice? 


Let’s go ahead.

  • Problem

Delve into a pertinent pain point or challenge that resonates with your target keywords and audience’s needs. Evoke the reader’s emotions by highlighting the consequences of this problem.

  • Agitate

Elevate the emotional intensity by narrating relatable scenarios that amplify the challenges your audience faces. Incorporate compelling statistics or gripping anecdotes to hold their attention.

  • Solution

Seamlessly introduce your solution – be it a service, product, or expert advice – that effectively tackles the highlighted problem. Craft your content to organically integrate your target keywords without compromising on readability or engagement.

A Beautiful Example

  • Problem

“Struggling to Achieve Visible Rankings on Google’s Search Results?”

  • Agitate

Visualize losing potential customers to competitors solely because your website languishes unnoticed on the abyss of page 3 in search results.

  • Solution

Embark on a journey of SEO-optimized content creation. Our in-depth guide not only equips you with the strategies to enhance your website’s visibility but also offers insights into attracting organic traffic, all while ensuring a seamless keyword integration.

Masterful Balance of SEO and Copywriting | Expert Delivery for High Conversion


While learning as a beginner, keep trying to shift your caliber to the next level. Apply these things for the growth.

  • Strategic Keyword Integration

Each segment seamlessly integrates target keywords, ensuring your content aligns perfectly with SEO objectives.

  • Enhanced Engagement: 

The emotional amplification during the agitation phase forges a powerful connection, elevating user engagement and prolonging time spent on the page.

  • Precise Call-to-Action: 

By offering a tangible solution, readers are enticed to take the desired action, whether it’s delving into the guide or venturing further into your offered services.

AIDA Formula in SEO Copywriting | A Symphony of Persuasion and Optimization

Here is how you succeed in sketching AIDA Formula in SEO Copywriting.

  • Attention

Masterfully compose an attention-commanding headline that skillfully incorporates your target keywords, captivating your readers’ curiosity.

  • Interest

Seamlessly segue into addressing the reader’s interests, mirroring their search intent, and succinctly introducing your content’s relevancy.

  • Desire

Expertly weave a narrative that builds desire by illustrating how your content, product, or solution can tangibly fulfill their aspirations while maintaining optimal keyword density.

  • Action

Conclude with an incisive call to action meticulously aligned with your SEO aspirations. This could encompass downloading a resource, subscribing to a newsletter, or even sharing your expertly curated content.

A Beautiful Example 

  • Attention

“Unveiling the Enigma of SEO Mastery: Elevate Your Website’s Performance!”

  • Interest

Are you wearied by the perpetual struggle for online recognition? Covet a higher ranking for your website on search engines?

  • Desire

Envision the transformative potential of drawing a substantial influx of visitors, elevating your lead generation, and propelling the growth of your business to new heights.

  • Action

Immerse yourself in the depths of SEO wisdom – download our meticulously crafted guide now to initiate the optimization of your website, ultimately reaping the bounteous rewards.

A Seamless Fusion of SEO and Artful Copywriting | AIDA+SEO Work Like Anything

  • Precision in Keyword Utilization

Craft your headline, content, and call-to-action with a finesse that elegantly integrates keywords for optimal SEO impact.

  • Engagement through Relevance

By addressing the reader’s needs and aspirations, the AIDA formula ensures that the content remains engaging and relevant.

  • Conclusive Conversion

The tailored call-to-action serves as a directive that harmonizes with SEO objectives, guiding readers toward actions that align with your SEO strategy.

When you become familiar with Types of Keywords with Examples, your SEO will touch the high rankings like me. 

How to Elevate SEO Copywriting Proficiency

  • Conduct Comprehensive Keyword Research

Identify keywords that align with your target audience’s search intent.

  • Contextual Relevance 

Seamlessly incorporate keywords while maintaining contextual integrity, ensuring content remains engaging.

  • Intuitive Meta Elements

Optimize title tags, meta descriptions, and headers for keyword resonance while fostering click-through rates.

  • Strategic Linking

Integrate internal and external links that not only enhance user experience but also provide additional valuable resources.

By adeptly combining these copywriting formulas with astute SEO strategies, SEO copywriters can craft content that attains exceptional rankings, captivates readers, and ultimately drives conversion, seamlessly blending the realms of persuasive writing and search engine optimization.

For more exposure, I have crafted Types of Power Words for you. Have you got that treasure? 

Jump to that one without forgetting the lifetime learning.

Summing Up

Copywriting formulas are like organized blueprints for writing persuasive content. They help you lay out your message in a clear way. These formulas guide readers logically and emotionally. 

They talk about problems, solutions, and benefits, making people more interested and likely to do things like buying or subscribing.

For beginners, copywriting formulas with examples are super helpful. They let you write content that speaks to readers and also fits with search engines. You use keywords naturally in the formulas. This helps your content show up higher in search results. 

These formulas also keep your writing interesting to readers. They focus on what readers want, which makes them stay and maybe do what you want them to do. 

When you choose the right formula for your message and who you’re writing to, you can make content that’s interesting, convincing, and ranks well on search engines.

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